- Molecules of DNA are double-stranded, each strand a perfect complementary copy of the other.
- Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
- Chromosomes are made of DNA.
- We have two copies of each gene.
1. Complementary copies of DNA strandsMolecules of DNA duplicate the information they carry. Each base in a DNA strand is bonded to its complement on the opposite strand: A bonds to T, C bonds to G. It’s like a backup mechanism: if something happens to one part of the strand, the other half is there with the complement of the information. So that’s the first way in which genetic information is paired. And the important part about this pairing is that the pairs are exact complements of each other, like mirror images: the information is duplicated precisely and does not vary.
|Part of a DNA strand, demonstrating complementary bases in matching colors|
|Chromatin: light blue/green strands of DNA wrapped around bright blue histones.|
2. Two copies of each chromosomeChromosomes are made out of chromatin. In a lot of the pictures of chromosomes in which you can see the chromatin that makes it up, the chromatin looks sort of like yarn woven into a sweater. That’s a reasonable way to think of chromosomes: big structures (big enough that we can see them with a not-too-powerful microscope) made from this yarn-like chromatin.
|Cartoon of chromosome made of yarn-like chromatin. (Image by Magnus Manske at Wikipedia.)|
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Dogs have 39 pairs. In fact, Wikipedia has a whole page devoted to the number of pairs of chromosomes in different species. We think of chromosomes as looking like big X. The X is actually the two separate chromosomes in a pair, stuck together during the process of cell division. Usually those two arms of the X are separate in the cell.
|Image by JWSchmidt at Wikipedia|
In a pair of chromosomes, one chromosome is made of chromatin from one (double) strand of DNA and proteins, which you got from your mother; and the other chromosome is made of chromatin from another (double) strand of DNA and proteins, which you got from your father. So you have, for example, two copies of chromosome 20, one from your mother and one from your father.
|Human chromosomes: 23 pairs.|
|DNA differences on two different copies of the same chromosome (see the difference highlighted in blue).|
So, yes, we essentially have four instances of each gene in each cell. That’s four instances, but a maximum of two versions of the gene (the doubled instances on a double strand of DNA are always identical complements; it’s only when you compare instances between chromosomes that you may see differences).
In the minds of geneticists, it’s the two versions in the pair of chromosomes which really count. That’s the pair that could differ, after all. And that’s why you'll hear that we have “two” copies of each gene, even though the gene is paired both in the DNA and again between chromosomes.